sábado, 13 de julio de 2019

Stark partisan divisions in Americans’ views of ‘socialism,’ ‘capitalism’



Republicans express intensely negative views of “socialism” and highly positive views of “capitalism.”

By contrast, majorities of Democrats view both terms positively, though only modest shares have strong impressions of each term.

Overall, a much larger share of Americans have a positive impression of capitalism (65%) than socialism (42%), according to a new survey by Pew Research Center.

There are large partisan differences in views of capitalism: Nearly eight-in-ten Republicans and Republican-leaning independents (78%) express somewhat or very positive reactions to the term, while just over half of Democrats and Democratic leaners (55%) say they have a positive impression.



But these differences are dwarfed by the partisan gap in opinions about socialism. More than eight-in-ten Republicans (84%) have a negative impression of socialism; a 63% majority has a very negative view. Nearly two-thirds of Democrats (65%) have a positive view of socialism, but only 14% have a very positive view.

The survey, conducted April 29-May 13, 2019, also asked adults about their impressions of several other terms: “libertarian,” “progressive,” “liberal” and “conservative.” Republicans and Democrats diverge in their impressions of progressive, liberal and conservative, but express similar views of libertarian.



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Many do not view socialism, capitalism in ‘either-or’ terms

While 39% of Americans have both a positive view of capitalism and a negative view of socialism, a quarter have positive views of both terms and 17% express negative opinions about both. Another 16% have a positive opinion of socialism and a negative opinion of capitalism.

When parsing attitudes about both terms by partisanship, Democrats are more likely than Republicans to hold positive views of both socialism and capitalism (38%) than an exclusively positive view of one or the other. Smaller shares of Democrats have differing views of the two words or negative views of both.

Among Republicans, there is greater agreement. A majority (68%) say they have a positive view of capitalism and a negative view of socialism – including 39% who say they have a very positive view of capitalism and a very negative view of socialism.

In addition to partisan differences on views of socialism and capitalism, there also are sizable demographic differences – including by age, gender and race and ethnicity.

Similar shares of adults younger than 30 express positive views of capitalism (52%) and socialism (50%). Among older age groups, views of capitalism are more positive than opinions of socialism.

Women are more likely than men to view socialism positively (46% vs. 38%), while a much larger share of men (74%) than women (56%) view capitalism positively. Nearly twice as many men as women have a very positive impression of capitalism (33% vs. 17%).

Nearly two-thirds of black Americans (65%) and 52% of Hispanics have positive impressions of the term socialism, compared with just 35% of whites. Majorities of blacks, whites and Hispanics view capitalism positively.

Adults with family incomes of $75,000 or more have more positive views of capitalism than do those with lower incomes. The pattern is reversed for views of socialism: Those with incomes of less than $30,000 express more positive views of socialism than those with higher incomes.

The gender and age differences evident in these attitudes also hold when controlling for partisanship. Women in both parties have less positive views of the term capitalism than their male counterparts. Among Republicans, there is a 19 percentage point gender gap on capitalism, with Republican women expressing less positive views of capitalism than Republican men (68% to 87%, respectively). Just half of Democratic women say they have a positive view of capitalism (50%), compared with 62% of Democratic men.

There is a more modest gender gap among Republicans on views of socialism (10 points); similar majorities of Democratic men and women say they have a positive view of socialism.

Mirroring the age divide among the public overall, younger people in both partisan groups are less likely than older adults to express positive views of capitalism, though the gap is much larger among Democrats.

Democrats under 30 have significantly less positive impressions of capitalism than their older counterparts. In fact, they are the only subgroup for which views of the term are more negative than positive on balance (43% hold positive views, 55% hold negative views). In contrast, a majority of Democrats ages 65 and older have positive views of capitalism (69%), as do majorities of those 50 to 64 (58%) and 30 to 49 (55%).

Younger Republicans (18 to 49) are slightly less likely to hold positive views of capitalism than those 50 and older (75% to 80%, respectively), and are significantly less likely to hold very positive views.

Although only small shares of Republicans in any age group report having positive views of socialism, those 18 to 29 are significantly more likely than older Republicans to have a positive view (25% vs. 13%, respectively). Among Democrats, similar majorities within each age group report having positive impressions of the term.
Majorities have positive views of ‘progressive,’ ‘conservative,’ ‘liberal,’ ‘libertarian’

Americans have generally positive views of other political terms asked about in the survey, though these views also differ along partisan lines. Majorities have positive impressions of “progressive” (66%), “conservative” (60%), “liberal” (55%) and “libertarian” (also 55%).

Democrats are more than twice as likely as Republicans to have a positive view of the term progressive (88% vs. 40%). The gap is even wider in positive impressions of “liberal” (81% vs. 23%).

An overwhelming majority of Republicans (87%) say they have positive impressions of “conservative,” while six-in-ten Democrats hold negative views.

Overall, Democrats hold more positive views of the term “conservative” than Republicans do of “liberal.” Nearly four-in-ten Democrats (38%) say they view “conservative” positively compared with fewer than a quarter of Republicans who view “liberal” in the same light.

Meanwhile, Americans overall view the term “libertarian” positively. An almost identical small majority of Republicans (55%) and Democrats (56%) express positive impressions of “libertarian,” but relatively small shares of both parties say they have a very positive view (12% of Republicans, 7% of Democrats). Instead, pluralities from each party say they have a somewhat positive impression of this term – including 49% of Democrats and 43% of Republicans.

jueves, 11 de julio de 2019

Most U.S. adults feel what happens to their own racial or ethnic group affects them personally



Residents participate in a service of prayers and hymns for peace in advance of a planned white supremacist rally and counter-protest in August 2017 in Knoxville, Tennessee. (Spencer Platt/Getty Images)

How much do people feel that what happens to members of their own racial or ethnic group affects what happens in their own lives? What about what happens to other groups? Known among researchers as “linked fate,” this sense of connectedness was originally used to explain persistent Democratic voting bloc patterns among black Americans. More recently it has been used to examine not only how closely connected black Americans feel toward one another, but also connectedness between and among other racial groups.

A recent Pew Research Center survey finds that racial or ethnic group membership, education and partisanship are the most important determinants of linked fate within and across racial groups. For blacks and Hispanics specifically, experiences of discrimination increase the likelihood of saying that what happens to the other group would affect them.

When asked how much what happens to blacks, whites, Hispanics and Asians in the United States affects their own lives, U.S. adults say that what happens to their own racial or ethnic group affects them the most. This is most pronounced among black adults: 44% in this group say that what happens to other blacks impacts their own lives a lot. And it is especially true for black adults with a bachelor’s degree or more education, 58% of whom say that what happens to other black people affects them a lot compared with 49% of those with some college and 33% with a high school diploma or less education. There are no gender or age differences among black people in this regard.



Conversely, only about a quarter of whites (23%) say that what happens to other white people in the country affects them a lot. This sense of linked fate with other whites does not vary by gender. However, whites under 30 (30%) are more likely than those ages 50 and older (20%) to say that their fate is closely linked to other white people. Education also matters among whites: Those with at least a bachelor’s degree (26%) have a stronger sense of linked fate to other white people than those with no more than a high school diploma (19%). Additionally, white Democrats and those who lean Democratic (28%) are more likely than white Republicans and Republican leaners (20%) to say what happens to other white people affects their own lives a lot.

Among Hispanics, about three-in-ten (28%) say that what happens to other Hispanic people in the U.S. impacts them a lot. This is more likely among Hispanics under 50 (31%) than among those 50 and older (21%). U.S.-born Hispanics (27%) are about as likely as those born outside the U.S. (29%) to express a sense of linked fate with other Hispanics. This sense also does not vary by gender or education.

Likewise, 28% of Asians say that what happens to other Asians in the U.S. affects what happens in their own life a lot. Due to sample limitations, the views of Asians couldn’t be analyzed separately by categories such as gender, age or education. (For more information, see “A note about the Asian sample.”)
Views of linked fate across racial and ethnic groups

When it comes to a sense of linked fate across groups, no more than 20% of any one racial or ethnic group feels that what happens to any other group impacts them a lot, although more substantial shares say what happens to other groups affects their own lives some. For example, more than four-in-ten white (43%), Hispanic (46%) and Asian (49%) adults say what happens to black people affects them at least some.

White adults with a bachelor’s degree or more education are more likely than whites with less education to say what happens to black (51% vs. 40%), Hispanic (47% vs. 39%) and Asian (36% vs. 28%) people in this country affects what happens in their own life.

Similarly, black people with at least a bachelor’s degree have a stronger sense of linked fate to whites (60% vs. 44%) and Hispanics (59% vs. 46%) than their less educated counterparts. Black adults with some college experience (40%) are also more likely than those with a high school diploma or less education (28%) to express a sense of linked fate with Asians. Education is not associated with how strongly connected Hispanic adults feel toward black or Asian people. However, 54% of Hispanics with a bachelor’s degree or more education say that what happens to white people will affect their own lives, compared with 43% of Hispanics with less education.

A sense of linked fate is also shared among blacks and Hispanics when members of both racial and ethnic groups have experienced racial discrimination. Black people who experience racial discrimination at least from time to time (55%) are more likely than those who do not (30%) to say that what happens to Hispanics will impact their lives at least some. They are also more likely (38%) than blacks who do not experience discrimination (21%) to report that what happens to Asians will impact them.

Similarly, among Hispanics, those who experience racial discrimination (56%) are more likely to say their fate is at least somewhat linked to that of black people than those who have not (31%). They are also more likely to express at least some sense of linked fate with Asians (33%) than those who do not experience discrimination (22%). Blacks (53%) and Hispanics (52%) who experience racial discrimination are also more likely than those who do not (29% and 35%, respectively) to express a sense of linked fate with whites to at least some extent.

Among whites, partisanship is another key factor in cross-racial linked fate. White Democrats (50%) are more likely than white Republicans (38%) to say that what happens to blacks will impact their personal lives at least some. The same is true for whites’ sense of linked fate with Asians (38% of Democrats vs. 25% of Republicans) and Hispanics (48% of Democrats vs. 37% of Republicans).

domingo, 7 de julio de 2019

Hispanics with darker skin are more likely to experience discrimination than those with lighter skin




About six-in-ten U.S. Hispanic adults (58%) say they have experienced discrimination or been treated unfairly because of their race or ethnicity, though their experiences vary by skin color, according to a recently released Pew Research Center survey.

About two-thirds of Hispanics with darker skin colors (64%) report they have experienced discrimination or been treated unfairly regularly or from time to time, compared with half of those with a lighter skin tone. These differences in experiences with discrimination hold even after controlling for characteristics such as gender, age, education and whether they were born in the U.S. or abroad.

Latinos with darker skin are more likely than those with lighter skin to report a specific incident of discrimination. A majority of Latinos with a darker skin color (55%) say that, because of their race or ethnicity, people have acted as if they were not smart, compared with 36% of Latinos with a lighter skin color. Similarly, about half of Latinos with darker skin (53%) say they have been subject to slurs or jokes, compared with about a third of those with a lighter skin color (34%).


How we asked about skin color in the survey

Regardless of skin color, Hispanic experiences with discrimination can differ from those of other groups. Hispanics with darker skin tones are less likely than black Americans to say that people have acted as if they were suspicious of them, or to report having been unfairly stopped by police. Even so, comparable shares of Hispanics with darker skin tones and black Americans say they have been subject to slurs or jokes.

By contrast, Hispanics with a lighter skin tone have had experiences with discrimination that are similar to those of non-Hispanic whites. Among both groups, about a quarter say people have acted as if they were suspicious of them, roughly a third have been subject to slurs or jokes, and about two-in-ten (19%) say they have been treated poorly in hiring, pay or promotion. It is important to note that about half of Hispanics (52%) identify their race as white, a share that increases to about two-thirds (68%) among those with the lightest skin color.

While darker skin color is associated with more frequent experiences with discrimination among Hispanics, this link is less clear among black adults. For blacks, gender and education had a greater effect on their experiences with specific incidents of discrimination than their skin color.

The survey also asked Latinos what race people would ascribe to them if they walked past them on the street. About seven-in-ten (71%) say others see them as Hispanic or Latino, while two-in-ten (19%) say white and less than 5% mention other races. Latinos who say others view them as nonwhite are more likely than those who say they are viewed as white to say they have experienced discrimination or been treated unfairly because of their race or ethnicity (62% vs. 50%). Latinos who say others see them as nonwhite are also more likely to say they have experienced people acting as if they were suspicious of them or as if they were not smart.